Notes. Proximate cause relates to the relationship between an event and an injury. Can you offer an example of a real or hypothetical case where actual cause exists, but proximate cause is lacking? Ultimate Causation is a description of the reason that something happens rather than the mechanistic underpinnings of a process, why you go to the bathroom, for example, rather than how. For example, if someone negligently backs into the car of a 95-year-old, causing her outrageously high medical bills, the defendant is still the proximate cause of the injury. In law, a proximate cause is an event sufficiently related to an injury that the courts deem the event to be the cause of that injury. Examples of proximate cause are often found in personal injury cases, … For defendants to be liable there must be a sufficiently close connection between their conduct and the loss. was closely enough related to the plaintiffs loss so that the defendant should be held responsible. Learn term:causation history = tinbergen's four questions with free interactive flashcards. In other words, proximate cause isn’t difficult to prove. All new items; Books; Journal articles; Manuscripts; Topics. (b) is the best answer because Steve is not liable, despite This is usually brought up when something has gone wrong, such as an automobile accident in which someone was injured, and refers to the non-injured party’s legal responsibility for the event. The proximate cause is closer in time than the ultimate cause. 1. It is a proximate cause for manogamy. Animal social behaviour - Animal social behaviour - The proximate mechanisms of social behaviour: The proximate causes of social behaviour include the underlying genetic, developmental, physiological (that is, neural and endocrine), and morphological mechanisms. In tort or personal injury law, “proximate causation” refers to an act or omission significant enough in the chain of events leading to an injury that the law holds the person liable to the victim(s). These are answers that take a longer perspective and try to explain why the behaviour has evolved. Certain states take into consideration the “but for” rule for proximate cause. On the other hand, questions 3 and 4 give proximate explanations. THis type of question can be best categorized as" 1. Genetic differences (may affect neural mechanisms) The four types of questions operate at two different levels. In a legal sense, the term proximate cause refers to a thing that happened to cause something else to occur. Proximate and Ultimate causes are interconnected Genes (proximate) allow fitness benefits (ultimate), etc. test for this type of causation is whether the defendant's conduct is a "substantial factor" in bringing about the plaintiff's injury.) The Westermarck effect is the lack of sexual interest in one’s siblings (Wilson, 1998:189-196): Ultimate (functional): To discourage inbreeding, which decreases the number of viable offspring. Proximate Causes (Mechanism and Ontogeny) Mechanism is the physiology of behavior. View Notes - Lecture 4 Proximate Ultimate from MOL 410 at Princeton University. That is, one can overinflate the importance of something being a proximate cause. All Categories; Metaphysics and Epistemology All new items; Books; Journal articles; Manuscripts; Topics. White-crowned Sparrow singing an Alaskan dialect vs. Washington. Proximate - Mechanistic (Causation) 2. The ultimate question asks why these birds fly south in contrast to another population of birds with a different history of natural selection. 511 behavioral biology proximate ultimate causation o School University of Washington; Course Title BIOL 180; Type. Proximate causation, as contrasted with factual causation, is predicated on what central concept? These can be further divided, for example proximate causes may be given in terms of local muscle movements or in terms of developmental biology (see Tinbergen's four questions). and mechanistic and developmental issues as ‘how ques-tions’ [4], although, confusingly, the four problems are also often called ‘Tinbergen’s four whys’. There are several news stories dealing with sex offenders. “mechanistic” explanations (involving parts or proximate causal mechanisms) and “functional” explanations (involving functions, purpose, or goals), where the former reflects the operation of a mechanistic mode of construal, and the latter the operation of a functional mode of construal. 2012). Mayr elaborated this dual scheme to distinguish the making up and functioning of the … Uploaded By muonnguyen2009. This question should remind you of such cases as Kinsman or United Novelty. Previous question Next question The mentality has become entrenched because Mayr’s basic premise—proximate and ultimate causes answer different questions and are not in competition with one another—implies that there is no reason to link them; proximate causation is not important to the investigation of ultimate causes and vice versa (Laland et al. Mistaking the relevance of proximate causation can also “go the other way”. Steps to Establishing Causation. Parting between proximate and ultimate causation is questioned. Some birds have different songs depending on where they grew up; What are two possible explanations for dialect differences? Exactly how a given trait works (in terms of the various social, psychological, cognitive, chemical, and physical mechanisms that are involved in its operation) is a separate and complementary question. Question: Proximate Causation, As Contrasted With Factual Causation, Is Predicated On What Central Concept? Factual Causation. "This second component of proximate Sexual offender registration is a controversial topic for discussion. Syntax; Advanced Search; New. The rewards cause males to stay near one female. 511 Behavioral Biology Proximate Ultimate Causation o Proximate mechanistic. This provides the males with positive rewards. Choose from 500 different sets of term:causation history = tinbergen's four questions flashcards on Quizlet. While the question as to whether a defendant, either in a criminal case, or in a civil lawsuit, had a duty to act is often pretty straight-forward, proving factual and legal causation often takes a bit more effort. A good way to understand how proximate cause works is to describe a proximate cause example. 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