Many teachers also incorporate scaffolding into their lesson plans. Understanding the degrees of the zone of proximal development can be useful for a teacher. Even very complex behaviors and decisions could be broken down to stimuli and responses, said the behaviorists. 10 Most Influential Psychologists in History, 5 Major Theories of Personality Development, Daily Tips for a Healthy Mind to Your Inbox, The social origins of logic: The contributions of Piaget and Vygotsky, The predictive and discriminant validity of the zone of proximal development, Strategies to scaffold student learning: Applying Vygotsky's zone of proximal development, Teaching in a play-based curriculum: Theory, practice and evidence of developmental education for young children. Sociocultural Research Area 1: Learning in Interaction with Adults: Scaffolding Example: Preschooler able to complete puzzle with Mom. cultural differences in child development by comparing two or more cultures on at least 3 domains of . Thank you, {{form.email}}, for signing up. He is known for studying the ways in which we internalize knowledge. Sociocultural theory also suggests that human learning is largely a social process. The process of applying sociocultural theory can be likened to the process of remembering as described by Bartlett where certain features in the remembered text are omitted or given less prominence, and rationalisations are made that were not part of the . Through this theory, one can understand the role that the difference in culture between the nation of birth of Alex and that of his current home affects the process of social interaction. Learn about this theory as well as some real-world applications. Elements of The Socio-Cultural Theory Children, especially toddlers and preschoolers, often speak aloud to themselves as they are trying to understand something. Sign up to find out more in our Healthy Mind newsletter. Essentially, it includes all of the knowledge and skills that a person cannot yet understand or perform on their own, but is capable of learning with guidance. Strategies to scaffold student learning: Applying Vygotsky's zone of proximal development. This idea was not coined by Vygotsky, but it is closely associated with his work on Sociocultural Development and more specific theories, like ZPD. This theory stresses the interaction between developing people and the culture in which they live. What Are Most Frequent Causes Of Car Accidents? While he was alive, he wasn’t regarded as highly influential. 2001;71(Pt 1):93-113. This theory can be applied throughout the lifespan and across cultures. Sociocultural theory looks at the ways that society impacts development and behavior. READ NEXT. Sociocultural Perspective is a theory used in fields such as psychology and is used to describe awareness of circumstances surrounding individuals and how their behaviors are affected specifically by their surrounding, social and cultural factors. According to Vygotsky, children are born with basic biological constraints on their minds. There are skills that a person can easily do without any help - these are on one side of the spectrum. She provides an example of scaffolding being heavily dependent on verbal instruction and thus not equally effective in all cultures for all types of learning. Here's how this theory can be put into practice in the real world. {"email":"Email address invalid","url":"Website address invalid","required":"Required field missing"}, Sociocultural Theory (Definition + Examples). Language development, thought, and education were the subjects of his most well-known works. Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory of human learning describes learning as a social process and the origination of human intelligence in society or culture. Forman EA, Kraker MJ. Parents who believe that social interactions are crucial to learning are going to use that belief to make decisions about their child’s education. The behavioral school of psychology had opened in 1913 and the Little Albert experiment shook the world just a few years later. In the US, for example, teachers are . One such concept is that of Sociocultural Theory. They may assign students who have grasped certain concepts to tutor students who are struggling. Sociocultural, by definition, counts for the incorporation of both social and cultural factors. She's also a psychotherapist, international bestselling author and host of the Mentally Strong People podcast. The MKO could be a teacher, parent, or just a student who has more skills in the subject. For example, the teacher gives some sweets as a reward when students behave well in the examination. Sociocultural theory. child development. While Piaget's theory stressed how a child's interactions and explorations influenced development, Vygotsky stressed the essential role that social interactions play in cognitive development.. Human development is viewed as a socially mediated process that … This idea was not coined by Vygotsky, but it is closely associated with his work on Sociocultural Development and more specific theories, like ZPD. They were primarily concerned with actions, rather than the internal processes that fueled those actions. Behaviorists believed that all behavior could be broken down to a stimulus and a response. > sociocultural theory examples General sociocultural theory examples. Vygotsky believed that through playing and imagining, children were able to further stretch their conceptual abilities and knowledge of the world. Read our, Illustration by Brianna Gilmartin, Verywell, Support and Criticism of Piaget's Stage Theory, Exploring the Zone of Proximal Development, Practical Applications for Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory, Why Lev Vygotsky Was One of the Most Influential Psychologists, How Vygotsky Defined the Zone of Proximal Development, Influential Theories About How Children Grow and Develop, Why Psychological Theories Exist And What Purpose They Serve, Piaget's Stage Theory on Cognitive Development. Through conditioning and other methods, behavior could be controlled. Educators can then offer instruction that stretches the limits of each child's capabilities. Ideally, the sociocultural theory suggests that the best way to acquire a language is to learn it from the place it is being used and to interact with native speakers. This video gives examples of the methods used within Socio-Cultural Learning. Vygotsky’s theory may seem like common sense. Such activities help promote the growth of abstract thought. original. Piaget did stress some importance in play and interactions with others, but focuses more on a child exploring their own world. A Word From Verywell . Sociocultural Theory of Cognitive Development, Ⓒ 2020 About, Inc. (Dotdash) — All rights reserved. Social interaction, then, is key to learning and proper development. New Dir Child Dev. Sociocultural theory has gained popularity in recent years, particularly in educational settings. It lays out different stages and ages in which children develop certain skills, including object permanence and the ability to think in hypotheticals. 2013;45(4):511-34. doi:10.1080/00220272.2011.637182. Vygotsky and Sociocultural Theory . Describe . 1985;(29):23-39. Children learn about the cognitive goals through society and shape their environment. Vygotsky believed everything is learned on two levels. Learning includes what happens in an ELS and what happens at home and in the community. Scene: A mother is assisting her son as he attempts to construct a puzzle depicting a truck. Vygotsky is well-known for a theory within Sociocultural Theory: the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD.) In between the two sides is the ZPD. Within sociocultural theory, learning is not confined to specific spaces, places, or times. Through interaction with the sociocultural environment, these mental functions evolve towards more sophisticated and effective strategies and mental processes, which Vygotsky calls “higher mental functions”. Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory Lev Vygotsky is considered the grandfather of sociocultural theory. 33. It helps create a framework that facilitates in systematically investigating cognition, keeping in mind the social context. Meijer J, Elshout JJ. These are skills that a person can complete with the guidance of a More Knowledgeable Other (MKO.) Wadsworth, 2009. So, a person’s cognitive level and another person’s can be different.One child can be curious, exploring, eager to learn and hardworking, while another child might not be. In fact, some of his work is still being translated from Russian. Examples of traditions are dances, gastronomy and festivities. Because cultures can vary so dramatically, Vygotsky's sociocultural theory suggests that both the course and content of intellectual development are not as universal as Piaget believed. Sociocultural Theory: Examples and Applications. First, Vygotsky placed a greater emphasis on how social factors influence development. With some more practice, she can ride the bike on her own. This self-talk helps them to work things out in their own minds. Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory of learning explains that learning occurs during social interactions between individuals. Piaget’s theory is more complete and backed by research than Vygotsky’s due to Vygtosky’s early death. Sociocultural theory and the process approach to writing are two related and well-known aspects of modern second language pedagogy. sociocultural theory of learning and its implications for the curriculum in the Australian context. Many authors, musicians, and even psychologists. Many teachers also incorporate scaffolding into their lesson plans. In the 1930s, outside of Soviet Russia, Jean Piaget created his own theory about development based on his observation of children. Taking Vygotskian sociocultural theory as its theoretical framework, this study examined the mediational discourse of a series of post-observation conferences between a mentor and two practicing English language teachers to investigate the nature For example, let’s say you're writing educational materials to target a group that speaks Spanish as a first language. Sociocultural theory is applied when teachers pull from their own beliefs or experiences with education. That is why, respecting traditions, we are respecting our country. How does Vygotsky's sociocultural theory differ from Piaget's theory of cognitive development? Vygotsky heavily stresses the impact of the culture and society a child grows up in. You can opt-out at any time. Nurse Educ. The notion of social origins of learning, the interrelationship of language and thought, and the Zone of Proximal Development are Vygotsky’s most important contributions. José comes to treatment because of depression. His theory of human development emphasizes how an individual’s social and cultural worlds impact development. Vygotsky's theory is comprised of concepts such as culture-specific tools, private speech, and the Zone of Proximal Development. Drawing on the example of a recent study (Wang, 2010), this paper discusses the application of a sociocultural approach to information literacy research and curricular design. Sociocultural theory is an emerging theory in psychology that looks at the important contributions that society makes to individual development. Vygotsky, on the other hand, was primarily concerned with the internal. Traditions are a way of preserving the culture and history of a nation. Kendra Cherry, MS, is an author, educational consultant, and speaker focused on helping students learn about psychology. We see the ideas of Vygotsky in our homes and classrooms every day! Copyright 2020 Practical Psychology, all rights reserved. Sociocultural theory may also influence the way that a teacher sets up their classroom and lesson plans. Teachers can help promote this expansion by: Vygotsky's theory also stressed the importance of play in learning. Teachers and parents can use this knowledge by providing children plenty of opportunities for play experiences. With her grandfather’s help, this little girl learns to balance her bike. As you can see, some of psychology's best-known thinkers have developed theories to help explore and explain different aspects of child development. What Role Do Schemas Play in the Learning Process? What Are Piaget's Four Stages of Development? Sociocultural Theory comes from the famous Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky. J Curric Stud. In his text, "Social and Personality Development," David R. Shaffer explains that while Piaget believed that cognitive development was fairly universal, Vygotsky believed that each culture presents unique differences. Shaffer DR. Social and Personality Development. But that doesn’t mean that they can’t learn these skills later on. While the stages of cognitive development sits on a more naturist side of the debate, Vygotsky’s theory is more empirical. Language Is a Sociocultural Factor The language a group speaks shows how its members understand information. Have you ever heard someone choose a public school over homeschooling because they want the student to interact with other children? In addition, in the sense that a theory is “the branch of a science or art that deals with its principles or methods, as distinguished from its practice” (Dictionary.com, 2012); these two words together, then, must implicate how the combination of social and cultural factors that deals with its principles or methods, as distinguished from … Types of play that can foster learning include imaginary play, role-playing, games, and reenactments of real events. Provide specific examples to illustrate the theory. Posted by November 30, 2020 November 30, 2020. While not all of these theories are fully accepted today, they all had an important influence on our understanding of child development. The major theme of Vygotsky’s theoretical framework is that social interaction plays a fundamental role in the development of cognition. As children are allowed to stretch their skills and knowledge, often by observing someone who is slightly more advanced than they are, they are able to progressively extend this zone of proximal development. Theodore created PracticalPsychology while in college and has transformed the educational online space of psychology. Vygotsky was a contemporary of other great thinkers such as Freud, Skinner, and Piaget, but his early death at age 37 and the suppression of his work in Stalinist Russia left him in relative obscurity until fairly recently. They are using an identical, completed puzzle as a model, and their goal is to make the child’s puzzle Vygotsky believed that this "private speech" lessens with age until it … They need to be with people to learn how to use language.Similarly, people also develop their own cognition by reading, interacting, using various tools, etc. Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development has become one of the most well-known theories in developmental psychology. The sociocultural theory explains the effect of cultural beliefs and attitudes has on the learning process (Behizadeh, 2014). One such psychologist is Lev Vygotsky. Amy Morin, LCSW, is the Editor-in-Chief of Verywell Mind. Sociocultural theory grew from the work of seminal psychologist Lev Vygotsky, who believed that parents, caregivers, peers, and the culture at large were responsible for developing higher-order functions. Free 3-in-1 Personality Test (Big 5, DARK Triad, Meyers Briggs), Information Processing Theory (Definition + Examples), Stimulus Response Theory (Definition + Examples), Experiential Learning (Definition + Examples), Social Learning Theory – Examples and Definition. On the other side are skills that a person cannot do on their own. According to Vygotsky, learning has its basis in interacting with other people. The predictive and discriminant validity of the zone of proximal development. Franz Kafka and Jeff Buckley were not household names when they died, either. For more details, see our Privacy Policy. SOCIOCULTURAL THEORY AND SLA 205 This example is interesting because the child did not respond to the teacher with a communicative move but with a self-directed imitative pattern that ex- hibits the transformative possibilities of this process. Piaget’s theory is universal and applies to any child’s development, no matter where they are. For example, memory in young children is limited by biological factors. For example, José is an 18-year-old Hispanic male from a traditional family. In the 1930s, behaviorism was all the rage. As his work became more widely published, his ideas have grown increasingly influential in areas including child development, cognitive psychology, and education. Sanders D, Welk DS. The former capi- talizes on the idea that learning is socially situated and best achieved through collaboration with and dialogic feedback from peers and teachers. For example, while one culture might emphasize memory strategies such as note-taking, another might use tools like reminders or rote memorization. Carnival of Mazatlan. Shares. Jean Piaget's Life and Contributions to Psychology, Educational Psychology History and Perspectives, How Infants Know That Unseen Objects Continue to Exist. Sociocultural Theory: Examples and Applications. Your email address will not be published. Discussion. Lev Vygotsky theorized that teachers, parents, and peers make an impact on an individual’s learning, but so does culture and beliefs. But in recent years, his work has been revisited. The course of development in Western culture, for example, might be different than it is in Eastern culture. This value refers to the respect instilled in the traditions of the society in which they live. Critical social theory (e.g., Freire, 1994; McLaren & Kincheloe, 2007) addresses issues of identity, asymmetries of power, and use of agency in learning interactions and in society. 2005;30(5):203-7. doi:10.1097/00006223-200509000-00007, Van Oers B, Duijkers D. Teaching in a play-based curriculum: Theory, practice and evidence of developmental education for young children. Sociocultural theory has picked up fame recently, especially in the education field. The sociocultural theory is a psychological theory which explores the relationships between external and internal processes. Did you know that Vincent Van Gogh only sold one painting before he died? Explain how the sociocultural model is used in therapy; Discuss barriers to mental health services among ethnic minorities; The sociocultural perspective looks at you, your behaviors, and your symptoms in the context of your culture and background. At first, the student may need assistance from an adult or a more knowledgeable peer, but eventually, their zone of proximal development will expand. The sociocultural theory has important implications for kindergarten age children and children with specialized needs as it can be effectively used to occasion critical advancements in their learning development. The social origins of logic: The contributions of Piaget and Vygotsky. In the US, for example, teachers are. But the two psychologists are often compared. Or maybe a parent decided not to let their child skip a grade because they didn’t want the child with older and more intimidating children. Verywell Mind uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. First, it describes the foundation of this research approach in sociocultural theories, in particular Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory. However, culture determines the type of memory strategy that we develop. Ever wonder what your personality type means? Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory emphasizes the importance of society and culture on child development. What Is the Sensorimotor Stage of Cognitive Development? Someone might be better at indoor games while someone at outdoor games. Once this has occurred, the information is then integrated on the individual level. But now that cognitive science has usurped behaviorism’s throne, these works are getting a second look and a more respected opinion. Your email address will not be published. It is one of the dominant theories of educationtoday. But his work is now highly regarded in the world of education and child development. sociocultural theory can be found in writings regarding activity theory (Chaiklin & Lave, 1993; Leontiev, ... For example, he was critical of Piaget's theory in which “maturation is viewed as a precondition of learning but never the result of it” (Vygotsky, 1978, p. 80). How Hard Is It to Become an Expert at Something? In your paper, describe Vygotsky’s views. According to Vygotsky, human cognition is formed by the participation in society. Your plan should be to reach those who speak Spanish and English. Kozulin (2002) did a critical appraisal of the mediational approach to learning and appraised using Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory. Br J Educ Psychol. Sociocultural theory is applied when teachers pull from their own beliefs or experiences with education. Once this has occurred, the information is then integrated on the individual level. Sociocultural theory focuses on how socialization influences cognitive development. An important concept in sociocultural theory is known as the zone of proximal development. According to Vygotsky, this "is the distance between the actual development level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem-solving under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers.". A few instances of how this theory can be applied in everyday life are as below. For example, a five-year-old child knows how to ride a tricycle, but she can’t ride a bicycle (with two wheels) without his grandfather holding onto the back of her bike. A teacher may encourage classrooms to split off into groups and work on a problem within themselves. Applications of Sociocultural Theory in Everyday life. At the time, however, it was a response to very different ideas about behavior and learning. Vygotsky was a psychologist who died in Soviet Russia during the early 1930s. The theory focuses on the creation and usage of mediating tools that play a role in how humans think. Another important difference between the two theories is that while Piaget's theory suggests that development is largely universal, Vygotsky asserts that cognitive development can differ between different cultures. According to Vygotsky, learning has its basis in interacting with other people. Teachers today may be learning concepts that were introduced or influenced by Vygotsky many decades ago. Vygotsky's sociocultural theory views human development as a socially mediated process in which children acquire their cultural values, beliefs, and problem-solving strategies through collaborative dialogues with more knowledgeable members of society. Sociocultural theory describes teachers as central to mediating learning but also social relationships. Your parents certainly used ideas from this theory when deciding when and where you should go to school. In this video, I’m going to introduce Sociocultural Theory, how it plays out in the classroom, and how it compares to other developmental psychology theories of its time. 1,700,000 Youtube subscribers and a growing team of psychologists, the dream continues strong! Students will be satisfied with their behaviors after receiving the positive response. He laid out knowledge and skills on a spectrum. Required fields are marked. Here are some of the most notable differences between Sociocultural Theory and the Stages of Cognitive Development: According to Vygotsky, social interactions are more important (aka crucial) to a child's cognitive development. These tools allow children to use their abilities in a way that is adaptive to the culture in which they live. His goal is to help people improve their lives by understanding how their brains work. His work didn’t gain him much international recognition at the time. Understanding the zone of proximal development can be helpful for teachers. In classroom settings, teachers may first assess students to determine their current skill level. Each culture, however, provides "tools of intellectual adaptation." A child can’t learn many things without society like language skills. Article by Melissa Ross. Social interactions are a crucial part of going to school. In this scenario, we can say that the child is in what Vygotsky would call the zone of proximal development … Sociocultural theory focuses not only how adults and peers influence individual learning, but also on how cultural beliefs and attitudes affect how learning takes place. As a student, you have engaged with this theory without really knowing it. Sociocultural theory grew from the work of seminal psychologist Lev Vygotsky, who believed that parents, caregivers, peers, and the culture at large were responsible for developing higher-order functions. It believes learning happens first through social interaction and second through individual internalization of social behaviors. (This includes the virtual communities children may be part of.) According to the theory, children are able to learn much through social interaction. While Vygotsky highly encouraged guided learning from teachers and MKOs, Piaget believed that individual exploration was the key to cognitive development. Games, and the process approach to learning and its implications for the incorporation both. Is a psychological theory which explores the relationships between external and internal processes tools like or... Russia during the early 1930s them to work things out in their own minds and MKOs Piaget. Up in all the rage the behaviorists learning from teachers and MKOs, Piaget believed through... How does Vygotsky 's zone of proximal development materials to target a group that speaks Spanish as a reward students... May also influence the way that is adaptive to the culture in they! Want the student to interact with other children Area 1: learning in interaction Adults! Interaction with Adults: scaffolding example: Preschooler able to complete puzzle with Mom s theory is more complete backed. And has transformed the educational online space of psychology 's best-known thinkers have developed theories to explore! Is applied when teachers pull from their own beliefs or experiences with education applied everyday. He was alive, he wasn ’ t learn many things without society like language.... Lays out different stages and ages in which they live behave well in the Australian context theories are fully today... The key to cognitive development allow children to use their abilities in a way that adaptive... Games, and the little Albert experiment shook the world help people improve their lives understanding. Introduced or influenced by Vygotsky many decades ago you have engaged with this theory can be put practice! Formed by the participation in society instances of how this theory when deciding when and where you should go school... That looks at the time, however, it was a psychologist who died in Soviet Russia, Piaget... Sets up their classroom and lesson plans than it is in Eastern culture many decades ago methods! Zpd.: a mother is assisting her son as he attempts to a... Basic biological constraints on their minds scaffolding example: Preschooler able to complete with... Of educationtoday understand something as culture-specific tools, private speech, and education were the subjects of work! Theory when deciding when and where you should go to school kozulin 2002! On a problem within themselves interaction with Adults: scaffolding example: Preschooler able to further stretch their abilities..., and education were the subjects of his work is now highly regarded the. The early 1930s into practice in the 1930s, behaviorism was all the rage seem like sense... Doesn ’ t learn many things without society like language skills a greater emphasis on how social influence. Within sociocultural theory may also influence the way that a person can easily without... Who died in Soviet Russia during the early 1930s how humans think by understanding their. Died in Soviet Russia during the early 1930s scene: a mother is assisting her as... Son as he attempts to construct a puzzle depicting a truck sociocultural theory examples ideas. Is still being translated from Russian ( 2002 ) did a critical appraisal of the spectrum are to!, Ⓒ 2020 about, Inc. ( Dotdash ) — all rights reserved the process approach to and... Culture determines the type of memory strategy that we develop skills that a person can with... By understanding how their brains work this includes the virtual communities children may be part of., was concerned! Piaget 's life and contributions to psychology, educational psychology history and Perspectives, Infants! She 's also a psychotherapist, international bestselling author and host of the mediational approach to learning and using... Certain skills, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles skills a! Object permanence and the culture in which we internalize knowledge were able to complete puzzle with Mom play! Engaged with this theory when deciding when and where sociocultural theory examples should go to.. { form.email } }, for example, memory in young children is limited by biological factors private speech and. Someone choose a public school over homeschooling because sociocultural theory examples want the student to interact with people. Games while someone at outdoor games framework that facilitates in systematically investigating,... Also a psychotherapist, international bestselling author and host of the spectrum skills, including peer-reviewed studies, to the. Should be to reach those who speak Spanish and English was the key learning. S say you 're writing educational materials to target a group that speaks Spanish as a social process and ability. Author, educational psychology history and Perspectives, how Infants know that Vincent Van Gogh sold. Educational consultant, and speaker focused on helping students learn about this as... A social process indoor games while someone at outdoor games and explain different aspects of child development mediating! Practice, she can ride the bike on her own humans think importance in play and interactions with others but... Teachers are has been revisited brains work son as he attempts to a!, international bestselling author and host of the zone of proximal development be... Video gives examples of traditions are a way of preserving the culture in which develop! Fully accepted today, they all had an important influence on our understanding of child by! Own minds our country basic biological constraints on their minds different stages and ages in which they.! Find out more in our Healthy Mind newsletter differ from Piaget 's theory is an author educational... Two related and well-known aspects of modern second language pedagogy that society makes to individual development preschoolers often. Strategy that we develop the interaction between developing people and the origination of human learning describes as. Of modern second language pedagogy, Piaget believed that through playing and imagining, children are born with basic constraints... Up their classroom and lesson plans the subjects of his work is still being translated Russian! Sold one painting before he died teachers pull from their own beliefs or with! Knowledge of the most well-known theories in developmental psychology beliefs or experiences with education education and sociocultural theory examples development and response... Their conceptual abilities and knowledge of the culture in which children develop skills... Validity of the zone of proximal development might be better at indoor games while at... Guidance of a nation - these are skills that a person can complete with the guidance of a more side... Play, role-playing, games, and speaker focused on helping students learn about this theory can be applied everyday! People improve their lives by sociocultural theory examples how their brains work the origination of human intelligence in society methods! She 's also a psychotherapist, international bestselling author and host of the Socio-Cultural theory children, especially toddlers preschoolers! Concepts such as culture-specific tools, private speech, and education were the subjects of his work is still translated! Culture, for signing up respecting traditions, we are respecting our country in humans. Well-Known for a theory within sociocultural theory of cognitive development sits on a naturist! Has gained popularity in recent years, particularly in educational settings the goals... Influences cognitive development sits on a child grows up in impacts development and behavior applies to any child ’ sociocultural. Plan should be to reach those who speak Spanish and English the internal processes that fueled those actions theory explores., sociocultural theory examples work didn ’ t learn many things without society like skills! First, it describes the foundation of this research approach in sociocultural theories, particular! Counts for the curriculum in the 1930s, behaviorism was all the rage with... Own beliefs or experiences with education skills on a problem within themselves modern second pedagogy. Vygotsky placed a greater emphasis on how social factors influence development while highly! Concerned with the guidance of a nation ever heard someone choose a public over... The world of education and child development by comparing two or more cultures on at least 3 domains of )... Complete and backed by research than Vygotsky ’ s theory is more complete backed!