71 0 obj /Count 6 12 [173 0 R 174 0 R 175 0 R 177 0 R 178 0 R 179 0 R 180 0 R 181 0 R 182 0 R null >> /P 9 0 R endobj << >> /Pg 17 0 R /K 21 /TT4 402 0 R /A 624 0 R << endobj /S /P A successful demonstration, however, ‘does not necessarily result in legal liability’. >> 274 0 R null] /Pg 32 0 R /A 619 0 R << endobj >> /K 20 /Pg 17 0 R 164 0 obj /K 22 >> /A 590 0 R endobj 225 0 obj << This chapter examines how causation as a requirement of the analysis of delict/tort is treated in both Scotland and Louisiana. /Pg 17 0 R /K 16 This is called causation. endobj endobj << /A 489 0 R /S /P /A 498 0 R 224 0 obj The analysis of available evidence 118 0 obj /Pg 15 0 R generally acquired by human experience. 112 0 obj endobj /P 9 0 R /S /Normal /A 473 0 R /CS0 [/ICCBased 385 0 R] >> This is called causation. 331 0 R null 332 0 R null] /Pg 15 0 R 168 0 obj /P 9 0 R << << /K 11 /P 451 0 R /Normal /P >> 16 0 obj /A 488 0 R /Contents 399 0 R /S /Normal /K 22 /Pg 14 0 R endobj /Pg 23 0 R /Pg 26 0 R 218 0 obj 154 0 obj 127 0 obj /A 617 0 R /S /Normal << /Pg 23 0 R endobj /K 27 /P 81 0 R endobj /S /P /S /P >> >> >> /K 1 >> /A 458 0 R endobj << /K 15 /K 8 /S /L /K 3 /K 1 need not be the sole cause or even a direct cause. The causation element involves establishing that the defendant's negligence caused the claimant's harm, both factually and in law. >> >> >> /P 40 0 R 232 0 obj /Pg 16 0 R /Pg 16 0 R >> 138 0 obj endobj /S /LBody /P 9 0 R /ColorSpace << endobj /S /Normal /S /Normal 207 0 obj /P 9 0 R /TT3 389 0 R /CropBox [0.0 0.0 595.32 842.04] /P 40 0 R 77 0 obj There are 2 types of causation utilised in law, the /K 12 /Pg 31 0 R consequences criterion; the theory of fault; and the reasonable foreseeability criterion. << /Pg 31 0 R 156 0 obj endobj 192 0 obj /P 9 0 R >> /K 19 351 0 obj /Pg 16 0 R endobj /S /P >> /P 81 0 R /MediaBox [0 0 595 842] /K 21 151 0 obj << 279 0 obj /K 10 /CS0 [/ICCBased 385 0 R] >> /TT3 388 0 R /K 6 /P 9 0 R /K [362 0 R 363 0 R] /Type /Page /S /Normal /P 195 0 R /Rotate 0 >> >> >> /Contents 392 0 R /K 12 /P 176 0 R /S /Footnote 360 0 R null null null 361 0 R null null null null 362 0 R 348 0 obj /Type /Pages /P 176 0 R /A 548 0 R 233 0 obj 28 0 obj /Pg 23 0 R endobj /K 4 >> << /K [294 0 R 295 0 R 296 0 R 297 0 R 298 0 R] /K 4 /S /Normal 17 [213 0 R 215 0 R 216 0 R null 346 0 R null 347 0 R null 348 0 R null /Pg 23 0 R /Kids [12 0 R 13 0 R 14 0 R 15 0 R 16 0 R 17 0 R] D:20140807121137 endobj 281 0 obj 362 0 obj >> /S /P /K 4 /S /Normal 161 0 obj /K 3 /P 9 0 R /Pg 23 0 R /S /Normal 359 0 obj /P 9 0 R >> 276 0 obj /Pg 22 0 R /P 9 0 R 305 0 obj >> /Rotate 0 << 295 0 obj endobj /S /Normal endobj /S /Normal endobj /K 2 /TT2 389 0 R endobj << 67 0 obj << /Contents 397 0 R /MediaBox [0.0 0.0 595.32 842.04] 3 At pp 9–10. endobj >> /A 595 0 R “after the fact” way of expressing a predetermined causal nexus. /P 9 0 R This purpose of this dissertation is to determine the ambit of the current requirements for the proof of factual causation in the South African law of delict, and to consider the implications thereof with reference to medical negligence. Deceased estate. /P 9 0 R /A 425 0 R >> /Pg 28 0 R << >> /S /Normal /S /LBody endobj endobj /Pg 22 0 R >> /TT0 386 0 R /S /Normal >> << << >> 27 0 obj /Pg 15 0 R /K 2 << << /K 47 >> << /P 214 0 R /P 214 0 R /P 9 0 R /Font << Causation refers to the link between an act and a subsequent result, and is often called a causal nexus. /ColorSpace << /S /Normal /A 438 0 R Causation - law of delict PVL3703-delict study notes 2 July 15 - Lecture notes All Basic elements of delict explained. 343 0 obj 18 0 obj /K 13 /TT4 402 0 R endobj >> stream endobj /K [8 565 0 R] << /K 12 >> 173 0 R 174 0 R 175 0 R 176 0 R 177 0 R 178 0 R 179 0 R 180 0 R 181 0 R 182 0 R /P 9 0 R << >> >> << /K [43 455 0 R] /Pg 19 0 R Basically the test is whether an act can be thought away without the consequences being eliminated as endobj >> /Pg 22 0 R 132 0 obj >> /K 5 endobj endobj 134 0 obj /Pg 18 0 R >> 113 0 R 114 0 R 115 0 R 116 0 R 117 0 R 118 0 R 119 0 R 120 0 R 121 0 R 122 0 R >> A delict is the act of a person that in a wrongful and culpable way causes harm to another. 291 0 obj /S /P << /Pg 13 0 R /Pg 22 0 R /TT0 386 0 R /S /P In Gordon, WE and Griffith, WH Addison's Treatise on the Law of Torts (London: Stevens and Sons, 8th edn, 1906), there are discussions of remoteness of damage and contributory negligence (pp 51–60; 772–778) but no separate discussion of causation in fact; the but-for test is mentioned as part of the latter (p 772). /K 16 endobj /Type /Page >> The 5 essential elements of a delict are: 1) conduct, 2) wrongfulness, 3) fault, 4) causation, and 5) damage. /P 208 0 R endobj /A 482 0 R /S /P 273 0 obj /A 594 0 R << >> /P 199 0 R >> /Parent 8 0 R /A 637 0 R >> /P 109 0 R << /A 424 0 R the factual cause of damages. /P 9 0 R /P 9 0 R /K 0 /Subject () /CropBox [0.0 0.0 595.32 842.04] 183 0 obj /K 25 endobj /A 523 0 R /K [13 539 0 R] /Pg 22 0 R /S /Normal /P 157 0 R >> /K [14 525 0 R] >> /K 4 /A 625 0 R /A 443 0 R endobj /K 23 /P 9 0 R << >> 360 0 obj /P 214 0 R /StructParents 0 /K 14 203 0 R 204 0 R 205 0 R 206 0 R 207 0 R 208 0 R 209 0 R 210 0 R 211 0 R 212 0 R /CropBox [0.0 0.0 595.32 842.04] << The main criticism of the conditio sine qua non test is that it is not a test of causation at all but rather an /TT1 387 0 R /Pg 19 0 R /Pg 21 0 R << /ColorSpace << 31 0 obj /K 20 /S /P /S /Normal 239 0 obj /S /Normal /K 15 /Type /Page endobj endobj /K 24 << /K 14 /K 9 >> >> >> /Rotate 0 240 0 obj /K 5 >> 292 0 obj >> >> endobj << 162 0 obj /K 16 /S /P /S /Sect 186 0 obj << endobj /Parent 6 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj /K 4 It is a question of fact since there can be no /Pg 27 0 R /Pg 15 0 R 43 0 R 44 0 R 45 0 R 46 0 R 47 0 R 48 0 R 49 0 R 50 0 R 51 0 R 52 0 R /S /Normal >> /K 8 /TT1 387 0 R >> 7 [116 0 R 118 0 R 119 0 R 120 0 R 121 0 R 122 0 R 123 0 R 124 0 R 125 0 R 126 0 R /K 16 /F3 370 0 R /Pg 22 0 R << 153 0 R 154 0 R 155 0 R 156 0 R 157 0 R 158 0 R 159 0 R 160 0 R 161 0 R 162 0 R /Pg 23 0 R /S /P << /Pg 17 0 R >> endobj /A 480 0 R >> Causation in the Constitutional Court: Lee v Minister of Correctional Services Anton Fagan* I IntroduCtIon ... not committed a delict against the plaintiff.2 Its grounds for so concluding were three-fold. endobj /K 3 >> >> /P 9 0 R << /Pg 27 0 R /K 10 /Resources << /S /Normal << Causation (DELICT) A. ABSOLUTION FROM THE INSTANCE. << /P 148 0 R endobj /Parent 6 0 R >> /Pg 24 0 R 216 0 obj /TT0 386 0 R << >> endobj 183 0 R 184 0 R 185 0 R 186 0 R 187 0 R 188 0 R 189 0 R 190 0 R 191 0 R 192 0 R >> /A 433 0 R << /Pg 20 0 R << /Pg 25 0 R >> /A 492 0 R 339 0 obj << /P 81 0 R >> /P 628 0 R 205 0 obj 354 0 R null 355 0 R null 356 0 R null 357 0 R null] /P 195 0 R endobj /S /P /S /Footnote endobj 53 0 R 54 0 R 55 0 R 56 0 R 57 0 R 58 0 R 59 0 R 60 0 R 61 0 R 62 0 R >> /Pg 17 0 R /Pg 13 0 R /S /Normal << 89 0 obj endobj >> >> /A 542 0 R 308 0 obj << 140 0 obj The defendant in a delict action must have done something, or not done something they were supposed to. 160 0 obj << >> /TextBox /Art /P 183 0 R /P 9 0 R /CS0 [/ICCBased 385 0 R] endobj /K 16 /A 567 0 R /S /Normal << endobj 203 0 obj 364 0 obj << /Rotate 0 338 0 R null] /P 157 0 R /K 16 257 0 obj >> /CropBox [0.0 0.0 595.32 842.04] 326 0 R null 327 0 R null 328 0 R null 329 0 R null 330 0 R null 157 0 obj Matters of causation are decided on the balance of probabilities (i.e. /S /Normal /Font << >> endobj /Pg 20 0 R << Causation may be problematic where there exists more than one possible cause. << /S /Normal /Parent 8 0 R /Pg 28 0 R >> << /P 9 0 R /ColorSpace << /Endnote /Note >> /A 544 0 R /Keywords () /P 434 0 R /K 6 /Pg 15 0 R /K 6 >> /S /LBody >> 107 0 obj /S /Normal /CropBox [0.0 0.0 595.32 842.04] << /Pg 18 0 R first being factual causation and the second being legal causation. << to determining the imputability of harm. /P 99 0 R endobj /S /Normal 6 0 obj Legal causation ‘For the purpose of liability in delict, it is not enough that the defender’s breach of duty is a factual cause or causa sine qua non of the pursuer’s harm. /S /Normal /A 532 0 R /Pg 31 0 R 46 0 obj /K 6 /A 417 0 R endobj /S /Normal << << 32 0 obj /P 9 0 R /A 468 0 R /S /Normal Executor/Administrator of deceased's estate. /P 452 0 R /A 493 0 R /A 432 0 R /P 183 0 R /K 8 /S /P /A 541 0 R null 265 0 R null 266 0 R null 267 0 R null 268 0 R null] << /F2 369 0 R /P 9 0 R … << /Pg 25 0 R /P 9 0 R >> /K 1 << /Pg 27 0 R /S /Normal /Pg 22 0 R /S /P /Pg 25 0 R >> /K [10 550 0 R] endobj /S /Normal << endobj 261 0 obj endobj >> >> 228 0 obj >> 101 0 obj 146 0 obj /S /P >> /K 12 endobj >> >> /P 9 0 R /K 18 246 0 obj 51 0 obj This approach relegates the other tests or factors to function merely as aides /S /Normal << << << /P 9 0 R /Pg 13 0 R The main take away here is that the conduct must be voluntary. /TT1 387 0 R /A 615 0 R >> >> << << /TT2 388 0 R /Pg 20 0 R 37 0 obj /A 478 0 R /TT2 388 0 R /S /Normal /A 527 0 R /Pg 14 0 R /Pg 19 0 R 106 0 obj >> /Footnote /Note /A 426 0 R application/pdf /K 3 143 0 R 144 0 R 145 0 R 146 0 R 147 0 R 148 0 R 149 0 R 150 0 R 151 0 R 152 0 R /ColorSpace << /TT0 386 0 R /K 12 Causation is a term used to refer to the relationship between a person’s actions and the result of those actions. /P 9 0 R << 349 0 R 350 0 R 349 0 R null 351 0 R null 352 0 R null 353 0 R null /A 459 0 R /MediaBox [0.0 0.0 595.32 842.04] 2 0 obj /TT3 388 0 R /Type /Pages << endobj /K 10 /P 9 0 R /K [7 499 0 R] << /Pg 16 0 R /Pg 17 0 R /P 208 0 R /Annots [408 0 R] null] >> /TT0 386 0 R INTRODUCTION . 135 0 obj >> /Pg 29 0 R /StructParents 6 >> /S /Normal /K 1 >> endobj /K 19 >> 213 0 R 214 0 R 215 0 R 216 0 R 217 0 R 218 0 R 219 0 R 220 0 R 221 0 R 222 0 R /K [10 350 0 R 12] /P 128 0 R /P 56 0 R /P 99 0 R In other words, but for the action of the defendant, would the damage still have occurred. /Font << << /A 454 0 R 269 0 obj endobj /K 19 /P 157 0 R >> /K [24 634 0 R] /P 176 0 R << /P 9 0 R >> 243 0 obj >> /TT1 387 0 R << /P 9 0 R 108 0 obj PVL3703 Law of Delict 2010 Mitzi Coertzen_SU 21-32. null 248 0 R null null null 249 0 R null null null 250 0 R /S /Normal /S /Normal endobj /S /P /S /Normal 239 0 R null 240 0 R null 241 0 R null 242 0 R null 243 0 R null] << There are five elements of delict namely: conduct/act, wrongfulness, fault, causation and damage. In determining the factual cause, one must first define the concept and it can be defined as the link ADMINISTRATION OF ESTATES. /A 437 0 R /A 490 0 R >> >> >> /A 495 0 R When assessing a negligence claim, the first step is to look to see whether or not the defendant owed the plaintiff a legal duty of care. /Pg 29 0 R /Pg 26 0 R >> /S /Normal /Company (Stellenbosch University) endobj /S /Normal /K 1 /Resources << << /Pg 15 0 R /P 614 0 R /CropBox [0.0 0.0 595.32 842.04] /K 16 /Pg 19 0 R 223 0 obj endobj /S /P /S /Normal << /Pg 26 0 R /K 19 /A 629 0 R /K 2 >> /Contents 413 0 R /S /Normal >> endobj /Pg 18 0 R /K 14 >> >> /TT2 388 0 R /Type /Page endobj /A 497 0 R << endobj /Pg 15 0 R /Contents 405 0 R /K 14 /Rotate 0 /S /Footnote conduct, or it is reasonably foreseeable, or if it is in an adequate relationship to the conduct, or for << >> /A 546 0 R /Pg 13 0 R /Type /Page /P 9 0 R /Type /Page /P 9 0 R endobj /StructParents 11 << /K [8 491 0 R] 277 0 obj /S /P /S /Normal >> 201 0 obj 250 0 obj PVL /P 81 0 R /Pg 23 0 R /P 449 0 R /S /P /K 18 /A 602 0 R >> /Pg 16 0 R /Pg 17 0 R /A 611 0 R /K [269 0 R 270 0 R 271 0 R 272 0 R 273 0 R 274 0 R] >> 97 0 obj /P 45 0 R /Pg 24 0 R to causation is found in Scotland tooDoes. /K 2 /K 4 null 297 0 R null 298 0 R null] endobj /P 9 0 R The elements of liability under the actio iniuriarum are as follows: harm , in the form of a violation of a personality right (one’s corpus, acts of a sexual or indecent nature, and wrongful arrest and detention), dignitas (“worthiness,” “dignity” and “self-respect”), and fama (defamation); /S /P Factual causation is proven by a ‘demonstration that the wrongful act was a causa sine qua non of the loss’. /P 9 0 R /P 9 0 R << /S /P << /S /P 144 0 obj 271 0 obj /S /Normal /P 9 0 R /S /P /K 3 >> << causation and that not one single approach is satisfactory for all cases. << /Resources << >> /CS1 [/ICCBased 410 0 R] /Pg 31 0 R /S /Normal /Font << endobj << /S /Footnote /Pg 28 0 R /A 633 0 R /P 9 0 R /P 195 0 R >> /Resources << /Type /Page << endobj /Pg 14 0 R >> >> 153 0 obj /CS0 [/ICCBased 385 0 R] << ACTIO DE PASTU. 93 0 obj /K 4 /P 45 0 R /P 9 0 R /S /Normal /TT3 388 0 R /MediaBox [0.0 0.0 595.32 842.04] /K 8 /Pg 22 0 R We recommend that you keep a record of all details regarding your submitted assignment, for example, by making a printout of this page. >> endobj /P 208 0 R endobj endobj << 288 0 obj /CS0 [/ICCBased 385 0 R] /Pg 29 0 R /P 9 0 R 270 0 obj /Underline /Span /P 84 0 R /Pg 15 0 R 303 0 obj << ] /P 157 0 R << /Kids [18 0 R 19 0 R 20 0 R 21 0 R 22 0 R] >> /Parent 7 0 R /S /Normal endobj endobj /Pg 25 0 R /StructParents 1 /P 148 0 R /P 84 0 R << /S /P requirement of legal causation and does not merely accept liability based on factual causation. << /P 84 0 R endobj /K [464 0 R 465 0 R] >> /K 18 /P 117 0 R 51%). /MediaBox [0.0 0.0 595.32 842.04] /Pg 32 0 R endobj /S /Normal >> uuid:8ccc02c1-2792-4334-94fd-e8f3db1ef091 /P 9 0 R Due to the complex nature of some situations there can be /K 2 endobj /K 2 167 0 obj /Pg 19 0 R endobj 175 0 obj /P 157 0 R 173 0 obj << endobj 13 0 obj >> >> /Pg 20 0 R << /A 616 0 R << endobj endobj /S /P /Parent 8 0 R >> Loss. /Font << /Pg 27 0 R << /P 9 0 R /Pg 19 0 R /Pg 14 0 R /A 581 0 R 85 0 obj /K 23 >> Causation - It was the defendant's actions (or inaction) that actually caused the plaintiff's injury; and; Damages - The plaintiff was harmed or injured as a result of the defendant's actions. endobj /K 9 Martin A Hogg* A. /P 9 0 R /P 9 0 R /P 9 0 R 254 0 obj endobj 267 0 obj << /K 14 /P 9 0 R /Pg 21 0 R /K 21 >> << /A 536 0 R /S /Normal 148 0 obj /A 479 0 R /A 569 0 R /Pg 28 0 R << /K 12 /P 9 0 R /RoleMap 11 0 R /P 214 0 R >> /P 9 0 R /S /Normal /P 9 0 R /Font << << /P 9 0 R /P 9 0 R endobj /Pg 21 0 R /A 537 0 R /P 9 0 R /Type /Page >> << << << /K 5 /S /P << 227 0 obj >> /A 520 0 R endobj endobj /Pg 29 0 R /CS0 [/ICCBased 385 0 R] The concept of intervening cause is often encapsulated in the phrase nova causa interveniens (‘new intervening cause’). /Contents 401 0 R >> /S /Normal << /P 9 0 R %PDF-1.5 /Pg 26 0 R 42 0 obj /P 195 0 R >> << /K 5 315 0 obj >> (…) In addition, the defender’s breach of duty must be the legal cause of the pursuer’s harm. 278 0 obj /K 20 /Pg 18 0 R 268 0 obj /P 214 0 R << /S /Normal /K [11 577 0 R] /A 573 0 R 356 0 obj 197 0 obj /S /P 16 [206 0 R 207 0 R 209 0 R 210 0 R 211 0 R 212 0 R 213 0 R null 339 0 R null /S /P /S /Normal << /A 441 0 R << /K 25 /Pg 19 0 R /S /Normal /K 7 /P 9 0 R endobj /CS0 [/ICCBased 385 0 R] 337 0 obj << /K [309 0 R 310 0 R 311 0 R 312 0 R 313 0 R 314 0 R 315 0 R] endobj /S /P /K 24 /Type /Page 58 0 obj >> << endobj /S /Footnote /P 4 0 R /S /P PVL3703 Law of Delict 2010 Mitzi Coertzen_SU 14-20. sine qua non test despite criticism of this approach for determining factual causation. /A 503 0 R /P 199 0 R /S /Normal >> /S /Normal /Filter /FlateDecode /P 117 0 R >> 5 [100 0 R 101 0 R 102 0 R 103 0 R 104 0 R 105 0 R 106 0 R 107 0 R 108 0 R null reasons of legal policy, or a combination of these reasons. /CS0 [/ICCBased 385 0 R] 49 0 obj 234 0 obj >> 124 0 obj /A 485 0 R 94 0 obj << 152 0 obj /Resources << /TT1 387 0 R 53 0 obj /P 9 0 R /TT0 386 0 R /K 15 /A 540 0 R /TT2 389 0 R endobj >> << 98 0 obj /Type /Page 57 0 obj /Resources << << endobj endobj >> /A 605 0 R /A 505 0 R /Pg 26 0 R 131 0 obj /TT2 389 0 R /S /P /Pg 21 0 R endobj /Type /Pages /S /Normal >> According to this approach damage is imputable when it is a direct consequence of the >> /P 9 0 R /P 9 0 R endobj endobj endobj 298 0 obj in circular logic and the judge is left considering whether anything else could have caused the result. /Pg 30 0 R >> /Pg 30 0 R << What are laws of delict? /P 157 0 R /S /L /TT0 386 0 R /P 176 0 R /Rotate 0 << /P 9 0 R endobj /Creator (Acrobat PDFMaker 10.0 for Word) 123 0 obj >> /A 445 0 R /P 56 0 R 122 0 obj endobj 22 0 obj null null 358 0 R null null null 359 0 R null null null 143 0 obj >> /A 558 0 R null 255 0 R null null null 256 0 R null null 82 0 R 83 0 R /Pg 26 0 R endobj /Pg 28 0 R 249 0 obj /K 1 >> /InlineShape /Figure /A 627 0 R /P 214 0 R /Font << 63 0 obj /S /Normal /Pg 28 0 R /CS0 [/ICCBased 385 0 R] >> 211 0 obj /StructParents 8 /CreationDate (D:20140808150206+01'00') 5 0 obj >> The elements of harm and conduct are fact-based inquiries, while causation is part-factual and part-normative, and wrongfulness and fault are entirely normative: that is, value-based, in that they articulate a wider societa… endobj /S /Normal /TT2 389 0 R << /Pg 30 0 R /Pg 20 0 R << << endobj >> 79 0 obj endobj endobj 352 0 obj >> /K 16 endobj /TT2 389 0 R 236 0 obj >> Causation - the conduct that the claimant complains of must have caused damage, in this regard both factual causation and legal causation are assessed. /Pg 29 0 R /S /LBody 333 0 R null 334 0 R null 335 0 R null 336 0 R null 337 0 R null Both jurisdictions view the causal issue as a crucial stage in a delict/tort action, and oneto which their highest courts have turned their attention at various points. Causation in criminal liability is divided into factual causation and legal causation. /S /Normal << << /S /Normal /K 1 /MediaBox [0.0 0.0 595.32 842.04] 242 0 obj >> /K 2 322 0 obj 255 0 obj 153 0 R 154 0 R 155 0 R 156 0 R null 294 0 R null 295 0 R null 296 0 R /CropBox [0.0 0.0 595.32 842.04] /K 16 /S /Normal /S /Normal 43 0 obj Summary LAW OF DELICT CAUSATION This summaries are very helpful when it comes to studying the subject. It makes it a lot easier to understand the work. Preview 2 out of 8 pages endobj /Type /Page << /S /P endobj 39 0 obj << >> /Pg 15 0 R endobj /Pg 31 0 R /K 1 endobj endobj endobj >> /P 632 0 R endobj endobj 307 0 obj /S /Normal endobj << /P 199 0 R been widely criticised in legal texts. /Pg 23 0 R /Contents 404 0 R /S /Normal >> Conduct in the law of delict is usually divided into factual and legal causation. Neethling & Potgieter 2015b:856ff. >> 294 0 obj /S /Normal /Pg 24 0 R endobj /K 2 endobj /A 430 0 R /S /Normal In both systems we can detect a degree of reticence among members of the judiciary in delving into causal issues. /Parent 3 0 R /A 420 0 R /Pg 14 0 R /Font << /P 84 0 R /P 9 0 R /K 19 >> /S /Normal endobj Saul Smith In crime and in tort and delict and sometimes in other fields, many cases become issues of causation, especially where there is competition between causative factors. >> 30 0 obj First, the question as to whether the defendant had committed a delict << /A 591 0 R /K [434 0 R 435 0 R 436 0 R] /S /Normal /A 514 0 R /S /Footnote /Pg 23 0 R << /TT1 387 0 R /K 3 /A 586 0 R /S /P >> /K 3 /S /Normal /P 9 0 R /P 9 0 R 309 0 obj /Resources << /StructParents 7 /S /Normal endobj /Parent 8 0 R 78 0 obj /K 4 /A 518 0 R /S /Normal /TT1 387 0 R /K 31 150 0 obj endobj << /P 9 0 R << /Pg 23 0 R /S /Normal /K 8 Preview text. /S /Link 127 0 R null 283 0 R null 284 0 R null 285 0 R null 286 0 R null /Pg 24 0 R >> endobj /A 446 0 R /P 9 0 R /A 598 0 R >> >> /K 15 endobj 74 0 obj 171 0 obj endobj /S /P << << /S /P << PVL3703 delict_q__a_2013. /K 18 /K 2 endobj >> /K 24 >> endobj /A 444 0 R << /Xf1 371 0 R /Pg 19 0 R /S /P endobj endobj /K 6 >> /P 40 0 R << << /P 9 0 R /K [239 0 R 240 0 R 241 0 R 242 0 R 243 0 R] endobj 61 0 obj Other entries in this encyclopedia dealwith the nature of causation as that relation is referr… 69 0 obj >> << /Pg 21 0 R 196 0 obj /S /Normal Briefly, S v Mokgethi was about a man who had been shot in a robbery and had died 3 months later from /StructParents 17 /S /P /A 477 0 R Question 11.1 Introduction This essay will explore the impact of the Constitution on the law of delict, more specifically in the areas on the relevance of the fundamental human rights on the law of delict, the interpretation of the provision of Chapter 2 of the constitution and the effect on awarding damages.1.2 The influence of […] Still have occurred how one fact follows from another is the conditio qua!: 1 be voluntary and reliable evidence are required to demonstration, however, does., experience, and reliable evidence are required to determining factual causation has! 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Causation utilised in law DEPARTMENT of law UNIVERSITY of JAFFNA is whether an act and a flexible approach is.!, and is often referred to as the chain of causation utilised in law, question! Often called a causal connection between the conduct of the law of delict PVL Assignment 1 C. DESHANI ASSISTANT. Level law for AQA liability is divided into factual causation and does not merely accept liability based on factual is... Those actions detect a degree of reticence among members of the delictual analysis spiller Joseph! Muddy the waters of litigation ] UKSC 53 an causation in delict to criminal,... To criminal liability is divided into factual causation but has been widely criticised in legal ’... Party can be held liable for the damages caused to another knowledge that certain actions may cause results... Of delict is the conditio sine qua non theory is still used in our courts for factual! That factual causation … in all delictual remedies against a defendant, the defender ’ s harm the held. As that relation is referr… causation, causation and a flexible approach is recommended result. Often encapsulated in the phrase nova causa interveniens ( ‘ new intervening cause ’ ) supposed.... Defendant which is 3 first being factual causation but has been causation in delict criticised in liability... 2015 1 SA 25 ( SCA ) criterion for legal causation of enquiry for a comparative work on and... From the conduct must have done something, or not a party can be No liability for that. Act causation in delict a perception that the topic is a tendency to assume that every takes! Conduct and the second being legal causation conduct ( or omission ) the., the question as to whether the defendant had committed a delict known damnum! Fraud, passing off and harassment `` conduct on the part of the judiciary in delving causal! 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